Blog 5 My vision of leadership

At this stage in your studies of business and leadership, what is your vision of leadership? And how ready are you to lead others?Consider:

– Who has inspired your vision of leadership and why?

– If all leaders are role models, what kind of role model are you?

What do you stand for?


This paper covers a reflective analysis of my vision of leadership which through the studying experience in the previous weeks and the building blogs experiences in the latest weeks.

Leadership is defined as “relationship through which one person influences the behaviours or actions of other people” (Mullins 2010). Leadership reflects the essential ability which is to lead people harmoniously (Capon 2009). In is important to understand the role of leadership in organizations which is to influence, promote, and encourage individuals by collective efforts to achieve the shared objectives (Yuki 2012). Leaders have such the roles improving the team performance or organizational behaviours through the effective leadership (Pearson 2008). Leadership is more than just a kind of skill; it is more alike interacted communication process in organisations (Schyns et al. 2011). An effective leadership can not only benefit the organisational performance but also has positive influence on individuals’ development (Wilson 2013). From my point of view about leadership, it could be seen as one important sector and function in organisational performance; and also it is an agent who plays the role for connecting, bonding, and leading the people in organisation.

From my experiences about leadership in the previous studying, I found that to work with different people effectively and successfully is not an easy thing. Different members with different background have different thoughts show different attitudes; to manage every member engage and effective communicate and exchange contributions in the team are difficult. Considering leadership, this requires strong ability on managing diverse people. One leadership which I really advocate is collaborative leadership; personally, I think it is the art of leadership. According to CIPD (2008), the concept of employee ‘engagement’ has been raised as a topic and many companies were spent more investment in improving employees’ engagement by proper engagement. The meaning of engagement has been defined as: ‘a positive attitude held by the employee towards the organisation and its values. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organisation’ (Robinson et al. 2004). CIPD (2008) emphasized that particularly, the engagement should be involved in between top level and the employees. This point is shining the word “connector”, which was highlighted by Ibarra and Hansen (2011), is a key word for collaborative leadership. Additionally, another point is related to collaborate leadership, as Wilson (2013) emphasized that to improve organisational communications the questioning skills are important and crucial to everyone within the organisations for more engagement, particularly in leadership roles; this is a must have skill which could support leaders to understand the situation and circumstances better for improvement and more importantly, to guide their own learning (Wilson 2013). Collaborative leadership could also benefit from the engagement of diverse talent people (Ibarra and Hansen 2011) and sometimes could generate collective creative ideas. Collaborative leadership is a must for leaders and I am interested in to improve relevant leadership skills for my future career.

To sum up, from an overview of leadership, different leaderships all have benefit. The most one which I am interested in is collaborative leadership. Moreover, the innovation leadership is also attractive and valuable for my personal improvement. As I stated the example in Blog 3 which is about Dr. Norbert Reithofer, the CEO of BMW Group, the good combination between charismatic behaviours and innovation leadership has inspired me, and this example as a reminder for my improvement of leadership, an excellent knowledge base as fundamental plus creative and innovative ability also are must-have for a wise and powerful leader in future. Additionally, Sarwar (2013) pointed that leader could be everyone, and should be taken into a responsible role ethically for all interactions with other people; ethics is the fundamental of leadership which shows the importance of ethical leadership.





Capon, C. (2009) Understanding the Business Environment, Third Edition, England: Pearson Education Limited

CIPD (2008) ‘Engaging leadership: Creating organisations that maximise the potential of their people’, CIPD, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development

Ibarra, H, & Hansen, M (2011) ‘Are You a Collaborative Leader?’, Harvard Business Review, 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2013

Mullins, L.J., (2010) Management & Organisational Behaviour, Ninth Edition, England: Pearson Education Limited.

Pearson, J (2008) ‘Great leaders are readers: Five lifelong learning principles for leaders and new team members’, Employment Relations Today (Wiley), 35, 3, pp. 1-8, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 April 2013.

ROBINSON, D., PERRYMAN, S. and HAYDAY, S. (2004) The drivers of employee engagement. Report No 408. Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.

Sarwar, C (2013) ‘Future of Ethically Effective Leadership’, Journal Of Business Ethics, 113, 1, pp. 81-89, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 April 2013.

SCHYNS, B, KIEFER, T, KERSCHREITER, R, & TYMON, A (2011) ‘Teaching Implicit Leadership Theories to Develop Leaders and Leadership: How and Why It Can Make a Difference’, Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 10, 3, pp. 397-408, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 April 2013.

Wilson, S 2013, ‘Effective leadership: more questions than answers’, British Journal Of Healthcare Management, 19, 1, pp. 22-23, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 April 2013.

Yukl, G 2012, ‘Effective Leadership Behavior: What We Know and What Questions Need More Attention’, Academy Of Management Perspectives, 26, 4, pp. 66-85, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 February 2013.

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Blog 4 Ethical leadership

“Ethical leadership, defining it as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making”… [and] the evidence suggests that ethical leader behavior can have important positive effects on both individual and organizational effectiveness (Rubin et al 2010: 216-17).”


Corporate scandals on a world stage have emphasized on the business awareness and focuses on the ethical issues about leadership behaviours (Carroll 2004). As the relevant outcomes, many leaders within the business organisations are facing the difficulties and challenges about leading people ethically; or either ethical leadership or unethical leadership style (Resick et al. 2006). Comparing these two leadership styles, this paper argues that ethical leader behavior can have important positive effects on both individual and organizational effectiveness.

From the perspective about unethical leadership, it is argued that the unethical leadership is likely to link with charismatic leadership and transformational leadership. Hence, there are some arguments about the unethical leadership could bring effectiveness to organisations (Millar et al. 2010). However, more evidenced and negative influences from unethical leadership have stated. According to Brown and Mitchell (2010), they addressed that “Unethical behavior involves acts that are illegal and/or are morally inappropriate to larger society”. The Unethical leadership influences are negatively resulted in a high level of pressure in organisation. The behaviours from unethical leadership are focusing on completing the organisational objectives without any consideration about corrupt and unethical moves within the organizations. From the perspective of employees’ performance, Brown and Mitchell (2010) further argued that the attitudes of employees are negative influenced into a deviant and unethical results. The organisational effective performance and functioning will be highly impeded through the unethical leadership (Brown and Mitchell 2010).

In contrast, the meaning of ethical leadership is considered to ‘‘the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision making’’ (Brown et al. 2005:120; Rubin et al. 2010: 216-217). The leadership role into ethical concern is supported by building a moral organisational environment in order to enhance ethical practices with the organisational performances (Storch et al. 2013).

One important point is highlighted from ethical leadership is moral identity which could provide motivation for both leaders and employees at workplace (Mayer et al. 2008). Ethical leadership has promotability that the organisation could benefit from and even it could influence employees to a senior level positively which reflect the positive influences of ethical leadership (Rubin et al. 2010).

Mayer et al. (2008) argued that ethical leadership could bring effectiveness either for individuals’ behavior or organisational performance. They believe the unethical behavior and relationship conflicts could be reduced by ethical leadership. According to Brown et al. (2005), three key building blocks should be highlighted of ethical leadership: “being an ethical example”, “treating people fairly”, and “actively managing morality”. First two blocks is focusing on the perspective of moral person while third block is emphasizing moral manager perspective; these three blocks reflect the relationship between individual followers and ethical management positively. Through such ethical leadership on decision making, it could show fairness and morality to all employees and stakeholders. Employees are measuring this leadership as positive example and their satisfaction will increase when organisational leaders are showing ethical leadership. This employee’s satisfaction could positively influence their individual performance (Brown et al. 2005). Additionally, the positive influences from ethical leadership could contribute to not only the inside organisational performance but also the external organisation’s brand image (Millar et al. 2010).

Therefore, comparing with these two types of leadership, ethical leadership can have important positive effects on both individual and organisational effectiveness.





 Brown, M, & Mitchell, M (2010), ‘Ethical and Unethical Leadership: Exploring New Avenues for Future Research’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 20, 4, pp. 583-616, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 March 2013.

Brown, M. E., Trevin˜o, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117–134.


Millar, C, Delves, R, & Harris, P (2010), ‘Ethical and unethical leadership: Double vision?’, Journal Of Public Affairs (14723891), 10, 3, pp. 109-120, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 27 March 2013.

Rubin, R, Dierdorff, E, & Brown, M (2010), ‘Do Ethical Leaders Get Ahead? Exploring Ethical Leadership and Promotability’, Business Ethics Quarterly, 20, 2, pp. 215-236, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2013.

Storch, J, Makaroff, K, Pauly, B, & Newton, L (2013), ‘Take me to my leader: The importance of ethical leadership among formal nurse leaders’, Nursing Ethics, 20, 2, pp. 150-157, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2013.

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Blog 3 Innovation leadership

“What do [CEOs] do that steers innovation in their companies? Are they the sole drivers of innovation leadership? And is there a direct link between the innovation capability of a firm and the charisma of its leader? (Bel 2010: 47)”


This paper argues that the innovation leadership has close relationship with charismatic behaviours, and the combination of both could benefit the organisation.

By comparing with the traditional leadership, innovation leadership is more “creatively” and focusing on the ability about not only the new ideas generations but also the reorganization of dealing with conflicts and seeking opportunities (Bel 2010).

Five essential perspectives that the innovation leaders must have: firstly, “passion for innovation” is required a deeper emotional passion to leaders on the innovations which could benefit the target customers; secondly, “long-term perspective”, this requires the ability of making correct and valid decision with the wider consideration for perfecting the products based on the organisational strategy; thirdly, “the courage to fail and learn from failure”, this requires the ability not only on facing and taking the risk of innovation, but also improvements through learning the failure of innovations; fourthly, “deep engagement with the innovators”, this requires high level participation and collaboration to leaders with the innovation teams supportively; finally, last one is requiring leaders to protect their innovation teams from the middle management, in terms of the innovative persons are creative but also sometimes “rule-breaker” (George 2012). Put it in simple, innovation leadership is required to be both generalists and specialists in any given field of knowledge, and should encourage leadership and innovation to become ‘dispersed’ across the entire organisations (Bel 2010: 58-59). Through the innovation leadership style, the charismatic elements could be discovered (Bel 2010). Examples about innovation leadership which reflect from charismatic leaders could be found from Norbert Reithofer who is the CEO of BMW Group and John Rishton who is the CEO of Rolls Royce.

Norbert Reithofer

Dr. Norbert Reithofer is the CEO as well as Chairman of the Board of Management of BMW Group currently. BMW is one of the German largest car and motorcycle manufacturers. Under his innovation leadership, BMW has successful balanced its position on the leading level in car and motorcycle industries; the group revenues has risen by 11.7% than last year, as Reithofer described, it was the “Best year in corporate history” (BMW Group 2013). Dr. Norbert Reithofer could reflect the leadership which both covers charismatic and innovative behaviours. He was graduated from Engineering Technical University and has professional and excellent knowledge base in both mechanical engineering and production engineering. As Jung and Sosik (2006) stated that the charismatic leaders normally contain the extraordinarily talented attributes whilst has strong influence to their followers. During the 2011, BMW group has introduced five new BMW models and two hybrid concept cars are planning to launch in this year. To introduce innovation continuously which support the BMW group gain more attractive and focuses in keeping its leading position in the car and motorcycle industry (BMW Group Annual Report 2012). As Dr. Norbert Reithofer latest speech pointed out “We need cool cars” (BMW Blog 2013). This example shows an interactional bridge between charismatic leadership and innovation leadership.

John Rishton

John Rishton is the Chief Executive of Rolls Royce currently, as well as Non-Executive Director, Chairman of the Audit Committee, and member of the Ethics and Nominations Committees (Rolls Royce 2013). He has rich and excellent career experiences on the senior level in British Airways Plc. and global retail group such as Royal Ahold as well as Ford Motor Company. Currently, Rolls-Royce is one of the high-tech companies which make products in engine sector performance. Followed by technology leadership for innovation combined with a designed unique business model, the company’s revenue maintain it stable raising power since 2011 (Rolls Royce Annual Report 2012) which is after Mr. John Rishton’s join (Rolls Royce 2013), particularly benefit from the new project on improving environmental performance and emissions reduction. Under the leadership of John Rishton, Rolls Royce has successfully changed into a new business model and performed more effective. As Hayibor et al. (2011) stated that the charismatic leaders could also use their extraordinary talents to create suitable changes among their followers and lead more effective performances.

In conclusion, it is true that spend more R&D could support to generate innovation, however more focus should on the customers impacts and market needs in order to make the innovation to fit the fast changing environment (The Financial Times 2013). There are many ways would innovation efforts (The Financial Time 2013) and risks could be generated during the innovative process (Bel 2010). According to the examples from both Norbert Reithofer and John Rishton, it reflects that the combination with charismatic and innovative behaviours could provide excellent leaders in both charismatic and innovation leaderships.




Bel, R (2010), ‘Leadership and innovation: Learning from the best’, Global Business & Organizational Excellence [online], 29, 2, pp. 47-60

BMW Blog (2013) ‘BMW CEO Speech at 92nd Annual General Meeting: ‘We need cool cars’’, BMW Blog, online available from [], viewed on 31 March 2013.

BMW Group (2013) ‘BMW Group continues on successful course in 2012’, BMW Group, online available from[], viewed 1 April 2013.

BMW Group Annual Report (2012), BMW Group, online available from [], viewed 31 March 2013.

George, B 2012, ‘Developing INNOVATIVE Leaders’, Mworld, 11, 2, pp. 6-9, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013.

Hayibor, S, Agle, B, Sears, G, Sonnenfeld, J, & Ward, A (2011) ‘Value Congruence and Charismatic Leadership in CEO-Top Manager Relationships: An Empirical Investigation’, Journal Of Business Ethics, 102, 2, pp. 237-254, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 31 March 2013.

Jung, D, & Sosik, J 2006, ‘Who Are the Spellbinders? Identifying Personal Attributes of Charismatic Leaders’, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies (Baker College), 12, 4, pp. 12-26, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 31 March 2013.

Rolls Royals (2013) ‘Executive Leadership Team’, Rolls Royals, online available from [], viewed 1 April 2013.

Rolls Royals Annual Report (2012), Rolls Royals, online available from [], viewed 1 April 2013.

The Financial Times Ltd (2013) ‘Three innovation myths’, Financial Times, online available from [], viewed on 1 April 2013.

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Blog 2 Change and Resistance to Change

“Change is nothing new and a simple fact of life. Some people actively thrive on new challenges and constant change, while others prefer the comfort of the status quo and strongly resist any change. It is all down to the personality of the individual and there is little management can do about resistance to change (Mullins 2010: 753).”


Debate of change is coming up that “little management can do about resistance to change” in organisation (Mullins 2010: 753). This paper arguers that there is a lot that managers can do about the resistances; and the understanding of change is investigated based on the case study of JC Penny (JCP).

“Change” as one popular topic is defined to an unavoidable feature which could influence all parts of the organisational operation and functions, “Like it or not, Change happens” (Mullins 2010:752). The pressure of changes comes from the unstable external environment situation mainly, such as economics divers, globalization, new technology improvement, and the intervention from government etc. (Mullins 2010). The organisations have to change in order to ingratiate the market and survive either for current competition or for future growth (Mariana & Violeta 2011).

As Mullins (2010) mentioned that conflicts are originated between organisations and individuals when operating changes. The resistance to change come from employees is related to the reasons why change happened; uncertainty; and the influences of new ways for working (Mullins 2010). JCP is a company which has transformed its organisational culture from deep rooted traditional and rigid style to a more flexible style successfully due to the demands of changes. However, resistance was generated from its employees during the process of change. For instance, when the project “Just Call me Mike” operating, there was a group of employees showed a negative attitudes. They felt uncomfortable to call their senior managers’ first names, and even felt they were forced to change from the previous “old traditions” (Purkayastha 2007). The resistance of change from employees could be seen one tough problem that the executives usually face during the change process (Lawrence 1954). Obstacles or barriers are produced from the resistance of change which makes many managers face the difficulty on change management in the process of change (Ford et al. 2008). Different personalities and culture differences of employees provide more complexities (Ford et al. 2008) to managers to deal with the resistance. If one step changes, a multiphase associated steps have to change accordingly.

However, even though the resistances are generated, there are many solutions to deal with. Ford et al. (2008) stated that the better methods for overcoming resistances to change could through negotiations, good communication and consultation in order to avoid the communication breakdowns. It is important and necessary for the organisations to know and invest more about their employees’ reactions during the change process. For example, due to some resistances, JCP conducted a survey (AES[1]) which aim to collect the feedbacks from its employees in order to determine better way to achieve a ‘Long Range Plan’. Moreover, JCP provide relevant training programmes not only for its executives but also for its high-potential employees through heavy investments. As Mariana and Violeta (2011) stated that training with purposes could provide development opportunities to resistances although it is add extra cost. Additionally, consider the future recruitments, the organisation could select the employees who has better insights and self-reflections traits, this emphasized by Chung et al. (2012), this type of employees has ability of cognitive flexibility which could easier fit the organisations when the change process operates. Last but not least, one useful model called Lewin’s simple three-step change model (Levasseur 2001) (see figure 1), which includes “unfreeze”, “change”, and “refreeze”. This model could be adapted as one useful tool for better understanding and investigating the change of organisations in order to make suitable movements or implementations for change. As Levasseur (2001) emphasized that this model could be seen as one of the most powerful and fundamental tool for changes.

fwk-carpenter-fig07_013(Figure 1: Lewin’s simple three-step change model, adapted from Mullins 2010)

In conclusion, the uncertainties of the external fast changing environment create more challenges for the organisations; hence the ability of change is essential in order to maintain the organisational “energy” and competitive advantages. Many useful tools and suitable strategies could help managers to deal with the resistances. Depending on the situations, the organisation should adapt the suitable methods for operations of changes.




FORD, J, FORD, L, & D’AMELIO, A 2008, ‘RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: THE REST OF THE STORY’, Academy Of Management Review, 33, 2, pp. 362-377, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013.

Lawrence, PR 1954, ‘How to Deal with Resistance to Change’, Harvard Business Review, 32, 3, pp. 49-57, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013.

Levasseur, RE 2001, ‘People Skills:Change Management Tools–Lewin’s Change Model’, Interfaces, 31, 4, p. 71, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013.

Mariana, P, & Violeta, S 2011, ‘OPPORTUNITY TO REDUCE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE IN A PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE’, Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 20, 2, pp. 698-702, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013.

Mullins, L.J. 2010, Management & Organisational Behavior, Ninth Edition, England: Pearson Education Limited.

Purkayastha,D.(2007)’Remaking JC Penney’s Organizational culture’.(online) available [Accessed on 17  March 2013]

Shao-Hsi, C, Ying-Fang, S, & Shao-Wen, S 2012, ‘THE IMPACT OF COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY ON RESISTANCE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE’, Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 40, 5, pp. 735-745, SPORTDiscus, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2013.

[1] ‘Associate Engagement Survey’ (Purkayastha 2007:9).

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Blog 1 Theories and Models of Leadership and Management

“Research has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better results, provided they are well led. The ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generations and leverage all they have to offer, therefore, is a must-have for leaders (Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71).”


Diversity, put it in simple words, is pointing the differences from all humans (Parvis, 2003). ‘In an organizational framework, diversity refers to making use of and leveraging human differences toward organizational effectiveness and productive business goals’ (Plummer 2003:13). This paper argues that the ability to lead diverse people is a must-have for leaders. Lauber (1998) state the good management of diversity could influence the company positively at least on its bottom line.

To manage diverse workforce, there is a leadership which relate to the integration of employees is transformational leadership. As O’Brien et al. (2008) state that “Transformational leadership is important because it provides not only direction but it also creates opportunities for professional development.” They emphasize that transformational leadership could be seen as a key for effective collaboration through negotiation on the management of diversity.

Yet, arguments pointed that manage diversity could add challenges and complexities to organisational leadership. According to Tatli (2011), diversity management is requiring the skill of dual role for leaders and moreover, a collaborative and integrated insight of discourse, practice and practitioners are also important for leaders. Challenges are generated through managing diverse workforces, such as integration issues, stress from anti-discrimination legislation (Boddy 2011), language barriers and cultural differences (Dowling et al. 2008), costly and management need more time (Capon 2009).

However, Helen et al. (2012) emphasized that although challenges are generated from diverse workforce, ‘leadership’ and ‘collaboration’ in a sense of diversity are indispensable and still essential for each other on the management board in contemporary Society. Collaborative leadership, as Raelin (2006) state that, it is focusing on the implemented management based on the participation from everybody, simply stated as “integration” (Helen et al. 2012). It includes true leadership participation and decision making through a multiple process from all diverse levels (Glew et al. 1995 cited in Raelin 2006). The skills which are required for collaborative leadership, is becoming an indispensable for leaders due to its many benefits on managing diversity.

Positive views about collaborative leaders are summarized by Ibarra and Hansen (2011), as they mentioned the word “connector”. The collaborative leader is performing the role of connector that seeking opportunities from wider connection globally; creating results based on attracting diverse talents; collaborating top management; and supporting the team strongly in order to avoid the conflicts (Ibarra and Hansen (2011). Four perspectives of operation are summarized for the practices of collaborated leadership: “concurrent, collective, mutual, and compassionate” (Raelin 2006:155). “Concurrent” emphasizes those leaders sharing the power with others and this power could be improved through the collaboration (Tannenbaum & Schmidt, 1958 cited in Raelin 2006). “Collective” focus on the “plural phenomenon” which is generated from cooperation based on the collective purpose (Drath & Palus 1994 cited in Raelin 2006). “Mutual” is stated that leaders are considering others’ points of views equally as they are focusing the contribution to the whole organisations (Raelin 2001). And “compassionate” is emphasized that the collaborate leaders by expressing compassion, an expanded pure promises to protect and respect the dignity of others, the decision making come from all stakeholders’ views (Raelin 2006). Effective collaborative leadership could support workforce diversity through connective communications (Allscripts 2012), and help the top management workforce diversity positively for a long-term implementation and reach the organisation’s expectation. All these positive outcomes could be developed through the skills which come from collaborative leadership on the perspective of manage diversity (Ibarra and Hansen 2011).

In conclusion, by discovering the information about diversity and relevant leadership theory and model, it is reflected the importance of managing diversity in organisations. To recognise and value diverse workforce is central to good people management, and HR practitioners play the important roles to manage and develop the diverse workplaces in order to results more contribution for the organisational success (CIPD 2012). Leaders could balance the diverse workforce by using suitable strategies to support business objectives and add value to organisational performance.




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Helen,S., Paul,W., & Stephen,J. (2012) ‘Leadership for Collaboration’, Public Management Review; Jan2012, Vol. 14 Issue 1, p41-66, 26p, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2013

Ibarra, H, & Hansen, M (2011) ‘Are You a Collaborative Leader?’, Harvard Business Review, 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2013

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Lauber, M. (1998). Studies Show That Diversity in Workplace is Profitable. Villagelife. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from

O’Brien, J, Martin, D, Heyworth, J, & Meyer, N (2008) ‘Negotiating transformational leadership: a key to effective collaboration’, Nursing & Health Sciences, 10, 2, pp. 137-143, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2013.

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Plummer, D. L. (2003) Handbook of diversity management: beyond awareness to competency based learning. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc.

Raelin, J (2006) ‘Does Action Learning Promote Collaborative Leadership?’, Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 5, 2, pp. 152-168, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 March 2013.

Stevens, R, & Ogunji, E (2010) ‘Managing Diverse Organizational Environments for Strategic Advantage: Exploring the Value of Developing Business Diversity Curriculum in Higher Education’, Journal Of Management Policy & Practice, 11, 4, pp. 72-85, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2013.

Tatli, A (2011) ‘A Multi-layered Exploration of the Diversity Management Field: Diversity Discourses, Practices and Practitioners in the UK’, British Journal Of Management, 22, 2, pp. 238-253, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2013.

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